what is united nations

 what are the united nations

United Nations organization

 The story of an organization that was created for world peace. The United Nations was established on August 14, 1914. On August 14, 1914, the President of the United States of America, Roosevelt, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Binton Churchill, made this announcement while sitting on a ship in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. That we are willing to establish peace in the world. We believe in the right of every nation to self-determination and are willing to provide freedom of international trade to all nations. The hope was also expressed at the end of this declaration that all nations would work peacefully to resolve mutual disputes without resorting to the use of force. This declaration is famous in history as the 'Atlantic Charter'. In 1943 AD, the Ministers of the Allies and the Foreign Department of Russia emphasized the implementation of this plan at the Moscow conference. In October 1944, a conference was held in Dappaton Oaks (America) in which a plan was made for the establishment of an international organization for the establishment of world peace. A conference to consider this plan was held in 1945 AD in a city named San Francisco in America. In this conference, a draft of the creation of the United Nations was written and on October 24, 1945, representatives of 31 nations signed this mandate and gave their approval. Thus the structure of the United Nations was created.

Objectives of the United Nations -

 The members of the United Nations were committed to establishing peace in the world through their political, economic, and social plans. The institution has no right to interfere in the internal affairs of any state. This institution will protect the rights without any discrimination.

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United Nations Department (Organization)

 This institution is divided into major departments

(1) General Assembly -

 All the members of this union are members of the general assembly. Each member country has the right to appoint five representatives to the general assembly, but each member country can vote only one. This assembly meets only once in September every year, but it can be invited by the majority of the member states at any time by the general secretary of the union with 15 days' notice. All the matters mentioned in the mandate can be debated in the sittings of this House.

(2) Security Council - 

-there are 11 members in total in this council, out of which five are permanent and six are non-permanent. Communist China had not yet been made a member of this council, but now it has been made a permanent member. The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term. This is the executive council of the United Nations. Its main task is to establish peace and security in the world. Each member can cast only one vote. Its function is to debate only on the matters which disturb the peace and to settle them by peaceful means.

3) Protection Council -

 In the mandate, first of all, it was declared to take full care of the interests of the residents of the protected areas, and the territories on which the burden of their protection will be given to them for their social, political, economic, and educational duties. will have to be completed. Members are required to report their actions frequently to the General Secretary of the United Nations. This report will be given to the general assembly and other concerned departments so that every nation can have complete knowledge of it.

(4) International Court -

 There are 15 judges in this court. It is elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. There can be no judgment of more than one nation. Its meeting is held in The Hague (Holland). Every member of the United Nations can approach this Court. The term of these judges is five years. It works in French and in the English language. If a member requests the use of any other language, it is acceptable.

(5) Economic and Social Council -

 Both these councils are under the general assembly and their function is to make the world more prosperous and just. This council considers matters related to culture, education, health, etc. It consists of 18 members. He is elected by the General Assembly by 2/3 vote for three years. In the first session, six members are elected for two years and six members for one year.

(6) Office -

 The United Nations has an office and its chief employee is the General Secretary. It is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The office has the following seven parts

(i) Security Council,

(ii) economic and social,

(iii) related to the law,

(iv) information about the countries under protection and

(v) organizing conferences,

(vi) general services and their management,

(vii) Public Proceedings.

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   Functions of the United Nations (Achievements or Successes)

 The work, achievements, or successes of the United Nations can be discussed through the following points

 (1) Peace and Security 

The United Nations has not allowed international disputes and differences to age many times. It has saved tensions from culminating in mediation, arbitration, regional arrangements, etc. Many times it has established peace by the ceasefire, punitive, intervention, collective action, legal decision, etc.

The following are some examples of international tensions that have been reduced or eliminated by the United Nations.

(i) Removal of foreign forces from Iran, Syria, Lebanon, etc.,

(ii) to assist at the end of the siege of Berlin,

(iii) ending the union of Holland and Indonesia,

(iv) To solve the problem of Western Irian,

(v) the end of the Suez Crisis with the mere presence of its emergency forces,

(vi) maintaining the unity of the Congo,

 (vii) to bring about a ceasefire in Kashmir,

(viii) to bring about a ceasefire in Palestine,

(ix) punitive interference in Rhodesia,

(x) Collective action in Korea,

(xi) Withdrawal of the Soviet Union's forces from Afghanistan (1988),

(xii) Iran-Iraq ceasefire (August 1988),

(xiii) Independence of Namibia (Agreement of August 13, 1988),

(xiv) Liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi occupation (1991).

 (2) International Contact Place

 – United Nations Organization is a place where people of different races, languages ​​, and ideologies from different countries of the world gather, discuss, and try to increase mutual cooperation. According to Hannes Kohn, "For small nations is a gateway to history." Third-world nations have made more and more use of its platform by presenting their problems. Many times the United Nations has acted as a security force, while through debate, accusations, etc., the nations vented their anger and finally reached a compromise. Although the recommendations of the United Nations do not have the power of law, they do have moral force, which helps in solving problems.

Symbol of Freedom - 

The United Nations has helped a lot in ending imperialism and colonialism. Although it has not yet been successful in bringing the mandate area of ​​South-West Africa under the trust system and giving it independence, but the areas which were kept under the diameter system are now independent today. The United Nations has declared colonialism immoral and illegal. Eichelberger has rightly said, "The Charter of the United Nations has become the Charter of Freedom." Given that today no one can dare to make them their own colonialism. As a result of its efforts, on 22 December 1988, there was an agreement between Angola, Cuba, and South Africa regarding the independence of Namibia, under which on 21 March 1990 Namibia became an independent nation.

(4) Useful work in economic and social fields -

 In non-political fields, the United Nations has done many useful works. The United Nations has made continuous efforts to remove economic and social dissatisfaction, hunger, poverty, illiteracy, inequality, etc., which are the underlying causes of wars. Even in times of divine calamities like floods, storms, famines, and earthquakes, the Sangh has actively helped. Philip J. Cub has rightly said, “Ultimately, it is only through the leadership of the United Nations that it can be expected that it will be able to create the conditions of social stability and human satisfaction necessary for the establishment of lasting peace.” The League of Nations is engaged in efforts to establish a new international economic order.

5) Expansion of International Law 

The United Nations has also helped a lot in the expansion and development of international law. By making necessary changes in international law, it has been made useful for non-Western and communist countries as well. The United Nations has defined complex terms such as 'invasion' and has developed practices relating to refugee status and genocide. Many declarations have been made to draw the attention of the states towards international and political problems, such as the Declaration on Human Rights (1948), the Declaration on Child Rights (1959), the Declaration of Independence of the Colonial Peoples (1960), Caste and Color Discrimination Declaration (1963), etc.

(6) Use of atomic power for peaceful works-

 Indeed, the United Nations has not got enough success in the control and disarmament of nuclear power, yet it has emphasized the work of peaceful development of nuclear power through peace conferences. Have given. It has also stressed the peaceful use of space.

          Reasons for the failure of the League of Nations

 The following are the reasons for the failure of the League of Nations

(a) League's relationship with the Treaty of Versailles -

 the League of Nations was associated with the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles was not complete in itself. He gave birth to discontent. The clauses of the Treaty of Versailles were a beautiful example of Lloyd George's imperialistic attitude, Wilson's idealism, and Clemenceau's selfishness. Therefore, harsh conditions were imposed on the defeated nations. He was severely insulted. Therefore, the defeated nations wanted to gain power and regain prestige by breaking the currents of Versailles. In such a situation, the task of peace was entrusted to the League of Nations, until the defeated nation could not earn full power, the League of Nations got successful, but as soon as the defeated nations - Germany, Austria, Italy, etc., acquired power and they were called Hitler. With the leadership of Mussolini and Franco, the League of Nations began a series of failures. The defense of the streams of Versailles was the basis of the League of Nations. Therefore, disobeying the provisions of Versailles was considered a violation of the League of Nations. That's why Norman Wentwich wrote, "The League was the son of a disgraced mother."

(b) America's non-cooperation America

, which was considered away from all interests President Wilson had made every effort to establish the League of Nations, neither signing peace treaties nor accepting membership of the League of Nations. According to Gothorne Hardy, "A child was abandoned like an orphan at the door of Europe."

(c) Constitutional defect -

 The constitution of the League of Nations became a hindrance to its success, its rules were weak in themselves, whose description is as follows

(1) Membership Elective -

 Membership of the League of Nations was optional, a nation could not be barred from membership. After relinquishing membership in the League of Nations, the relinquished nation could not be compelled to obey the orders of the League of Nations. Germany, Italy, and Japan are clear examples of this.

(2) Article is related to the army -

 According to the 16th section of the League of Nations, the League of Nations could order military action to the council, but the League of Nations did not have its own army. He had to take military assistance from member states for military action. Economic sanctions could also be implemented through the army with embroidery, but whenever there was a need for military action, the big nations did not give full cooperation to the League of Nations. If the League of Nations had its own army, it would not have to look to the member states.

(3) No complete prohibition of war-

 War was not completely prohibited in the Constitution of the League of Nations. Defensive warfare was justified. So each aggressor nation declared its war as defensive and continued the war. Due to the complex and complex system of the League of Nations, it could be determined whether it was a defensive war or an aggressive, aggressive nation used to make its complete dominance.

(d) Effect of appeasement 

- Russia was the only country that followed the League of Nations the most. Socialist tendencies were growing rapidly in Russia. Russia had also opposed the aggressive tendencies of Mussolini and Hitler and insisted on adopting a strict policy towards them, but other member states of the League of Nations, including Britain, France, etc., adopted the policy of appeasement towards Germany and Italy. The totalitarians kept giving their slogan 'Destroy Socialism' and the capitalist nations kept supporting the activities of the totalitarians from within. If the policy of appeasement towards Hitler and Mussolini had not been adopted, then these powers would not have progressed and the League of Nations would have survived.

(e) The interests of different countries - 

Turkey wanted to establish its dominance in the Balkans, Japan in China, and Italy in the Adriatic Sea, while France was afraid of the increasing power of Germany. America was jealous of Japan's progress. Socialist tendencies were growing in Russia. England and France were. Therefore, it can be said that the major countries of the world were stable in their respective areas. Whenever anyone came under attack, they used to ignore the League of Nations and were engaged in fulfilling their selfishness. All nations lacked international sentiments. So the very existence of the League of Nations was in danger.

(4) Economic uprising - 

The biggest event that happened on the world stage was the economic uprising of 1930 AD. The feelings of economic nationalism prevailed in all the countries and each country determined its policies from an economic point of view. Humanity and international outlook were kept in abeyance, which shocked the League of Nations. Even if he wanted, he could not strictly implement the proceedings related to the economic sanctions and his downfall was certain.

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