Meaning and definitions of management|

 Meaning and definitions of management

 In simple words, management means the art of working with others. But in the broad sense

Under this, idea planning, organization, staffing, control, motivation, direction, etc. are included.

Management is that power that is concerned with planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling various individual and collective efforts of an organization for the fulfillment of pre-determined objectives. And in other words, management is an art and a science that directs that, controls  and coordinates the efforts of the organization by making a well-planned plan to achieve the common goals of an organization. Therefore, it is clear that management is a human-oriented technique, because it is in management that the goals of the organization are achieved. To do the work of planning, organization, appointment, direction, control, etc., are done efficiently and effectively.


       Features of Management

The characteristics or characteristics of management can be explained as follows:

(1) Management is a process

 Management is a continuous or ongoing process of achieving pre-planned goals by combining the physical and human resources of the organization. Many management experts have defined it in terms of the process itself. Management as a process mainly includes planning, coordination, control and organization etc. It is through the process of management that the resources of the organization are converted into production and profit.

(2) Management is a human process 

 Management is related to human activities and it plans, organizes, directs, and controls them, the subject of management is a human being. It is the process of directing individuals and achieving results. Because of the human nature of management, Lawrence A. Apple has said that “Management is the development of individuals, not the direction of non-living things.”

3) Management is a social process 

 Management is a social because it involves the inter-relationships of individuals. Since the functions of management are fundamentally related to human activities, therefore human activities are planned, organized, directed, coordinated, motivated and controlled by the management itself. Everyone's cooperation can be obtained to protect the interests and welfare.

 (4) Management is an invisible skill 

 Management is not an invisible thing but an invisible skill. It is a skill that is known by the results of an action. If the work or efforts are successful then it is called good management. On the contrary, if the work or efforts fail, it is called inefficient management.

(5) Management is a purposeful process 

every organization is established to achieve one or the other purpose. Management is a means of achieving the goals of the organization. The first goal in any organization is set

be easily obtained. For this, on the basis of its special knowledge and experience, the management anticipates future events and makes plans.

(6) Management has universal importance 

 Management is an all-encompassing process or action of universal importance. Its importance is not limited to a specific business, institution or country but is needed in all spheres of human activities. Its principles and techniques are equally applicable in the operation of all types of human organizations. Not only this, but the need of management is equally at all places (like India, America, Japan etc.). Similarly, management is needed at every level of the organization. Due to this approach, three levels of management are found – high level management, middle level management and low level management.

(7) Management is both an art and a science 

 the scientific side of management develops systematic and systematic principles and rules and the art side implements them in practice in the field of management.

(8) Management is a profession 

 Management, which was earlier considered to be an innate talent, has come to be understood as a profession with the Industrial Revolution. Management is a profession in which special education is necessary. In the present time management has developed as high technology.

importance of management

(1) Faced with intense competition 

 In the present time business has become quite complex and competitive. Business is being done at the national and international levels. There are many producers of the same commodity. This intense and cut-throat competition cannot be faced without efficient management.

(2) Co-ordination between different means of production

 In the present time production is possible only through the cooperation of many means and coordination among all the means of production is not possible without efficient management. Therefore, the importance of management is increasing continuously from the point of view of coordinating the resources.

(3) New inventions and coordination in ancient customs 

 With the invention of automatic machines, goods are being produced in more and more quantities. Earlier, many workers were required for the operation of each machine, but now the whole factory and plant start working as soon as the button is pressed. Adoption of new methods is not a prerequisite for success.

(4) Management for the development of people is not the direction of things

 but the development of the people. At present, every organization tries to make its employees the best through appropriate training and other managerial techniques.

(5) Maximum production at minimum cost

 This is also why the importance of management in the present time. It is increasing so that by using management technology, maximum, best and cheapest production can be done with minimum efforts.

(6) Fulfillment of Social Responsibility

 In the present time, the importance of management has also increased from the point of view of fulfillment of social responsibilities of business, because only one manager is through efficient management of different sections of the society (such as employees, consumers, employers, Lenders, Government etc.) can fulfill social responsibility.

7) Uncertainty and stability in risk 

 At present there is a lot of risk within the businesses and industries of large scale production and due to the intensity of economic and social changes, uncertainty has also increased in the businesses. Management with its vision and planning etc. It can bring stability to uncertainties and risks.


(8) Increase in efficiency of management 

In the present time, the importance of management is also increasing. So that the efficiency of the organization can be increased. By establishing co-ordination in the means of production through efficient management, preventing misuse of goods and machines, guides each person according to his efficiency and tells them how to do the work well. As a result, productivity increases and helps in making the organization more efficient.

(9) Good relation between labor-capital

 Although industrial expansion gives rise to labor problems, but efficient management creates such an environment by which the problems are resolved quickly and good relations between labor and capital remain.

importance of management

In the present era, the nature of business has become so vast that its operation and control is not possible without efficient management, that is why the importance of management is increasing day by day. It is only through management that an enterprise becomes successful in achieving its goals. Management itself motivates the people engaged in the organization to do some work, it helps them in the right direction. it's that art and science

1. There is no uniformity in the principles of management

 Management has not emerged as a necessary and leading institution in this developing economy because the principles of management are related to human activities which are according to the attitude and ability of man. They change from time to time, so the theory which is useful today may prove to be useless tomorrow. Therefore a lot of adjustments are required not only according to the peculiarities of each case, but also in the same case in different periods.

2. Freedom of human conduct 

Management is the art of taking work from individuals, therefore a principles of management are related to human conduct because human behavior is of free nature which keeps on changing according to the circumstances. Therefore, the freedom of human conduct creates a hindrance in the development of management science. In the words of Oliver Sheldon, “Wherever there is a relationship with human beings, the principles of management science can prove to be futile.” That is, change in human behavior restricts the independence of management science. Late Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi at the 55th session of the Congress He had said that, “While we are moving ahead in the growth of technical knowledge, on the other hand, we have lagged far behind in the study and interpretation of human elements.”

3. Flexible Theory

 Managerial principles are not flexible but flexible. Fayol himself has written that as a result the principles of management cannot be applied as they are. They have to adopt the circumstances according to their discretion. For this reason, the results of all similar actions of managers are also not the same.

4. Variation of Circumstances

 The circumstances of every organization keep on changing continuously. As a result, the principles of management which are useful at one time may also be useful in the same organization at other times, it is not necessary. In other words, principles of management cannot be applied equally to all situations.

5. Variation in Organizations 

 There are also differences in organizations. Some may be commercial and some may be non-commercial organisations, some may be small and some may be large. Although principles of management can be applied to all, but those principles cannot be applied on equal basis in all organisations. They have to be adjusted according to the requirement of each organization.

6. Growth of bureaucracy

Centralization of management in a large business unit remains in the hands of some top 3 officials, due to which the powers of controlling, monitoring and organizing are concentrated at one place. This encourages corrupt tendencies like estrangement, discrimination and bureaucracy in the enterprise and the organization fails to achieve its goals. This is the reason that management has not yet flourished as an important process in a developing economy.

 7. Variation in the stage of economic development

 The stage of economic development of the country also affects the functions and behavior of the management. As a result, the principles of management which can be adopted in  developed,  countries, cannot be adopted in the same way in developing countries. Therefore, according to the condition of the economy of the country, necessary adjustments have to be made in the principles, actions and practice of management. 

8. Mindset of Managers

 The mindset of many managers also affects the success and failure of managerial principles. Open-minded managers can adopt management principles more successfully than narrow minded narrow-minded managers.

Management is an important method of modern business. Which is the technique in fulfilling the goal of success of any organization.

Post a Comment